Мы продолжаем работу по подготовке к написанию эссе на экзамене TOEFL. На наших прошлых занятиях мы познакомились с требованиями, предъявляемыми к эссе TOEFL и его структуре, а также со словами и выражениями, необходимыми для ввода новой информации, перечисления и сопоставления приводимых вами аргументов/фактов. На этом занятии мы рассмотрим слова и выражения, которые помогут вам уточнить или более подробно изложить вашу точку зрения, а также обобщить ваши рассуждения и привести их к логическому заключению.

Желаем успеха в вашей работе!


Words and phrases to make things clear or explain a given point in greater detail:

that is to say/in other words — другими/иными словами; иначе говоря; то есть;
that is (лат. — i.e.) — то есть;
indeed — в самом деле; 
specifically/in particular/particularly/especially — особенно, в особенности; в частности; 
strictly speaking — строго (точнее) говоря; used when you are using words or explaining rules in an exact and correct way: Strictly speaking, spiders are not insects, although most people think they are. (Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1995); 
simply put/to put it simply — проще говоря;
the main point here is that… — главный вопрос/основной момент в том, что … ; 
on a (more) personal/practical (etc) level — в (более) частном/практическом и т.д. аспекте/плане;
from a (purely theoretical) perspective — с (чисто теоретической) точки зрения;
for example/for instance (лат. — e.g./eg) — например;

Words and phrases to indicate a logical conclusion:

therefore/consequently — поэтому; следовательно;
thus/so — таким образом; поэтому; 
hence — следовательно; в результате; 
as a result — в результате; в итоге; 
it appears that… — очевидно; явно;
evidently/it is evident that… — очевидно; несомненно;
clearly/undoubtedly/unquestionably/beyond any doubt — без сомнения; несомненно;
Note: Word choice — thus, so, therefore, consequently, for this reason, as a result. Of all these words, so is least formal (thus — most formal). In formal writing, avoid using So at the beginning of a sentence — it is characteristic of spoken English: The country was beautiful.Consequently I decided to return the next year./I therefore decided to return the next year. (formal style)

Eg: In North American universities, the cost of tuition is very 
high. Thus, many students are forced to work at part-time 
jobs while they are studying. 

Eg: I really cannot stand tourist resorts in tropical climates, 
so if I were given a chance to visit a foreign country for 
a short vacation, I would steer clear of such hot and 
overcrowded destinations. (TOEFL writing question 156. 
TOEFL Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: Medical technology is increasing at a phenomenal rate. As a 
result, people now live much longer lives than in any other 
past generation. (TOEFL writing question 21. TOEFL 
Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: It is evident that people have to pay a price for the 
benefits of their industrial society. But this price seems 
to be very high if only to think about the problems facing 
us now: the risk of nuclear accidents, chemical works 
explosions, acid rain, the destruction of wild life and 
countryside, air and water pollution. (TOEFL writing 
questions 29, # 152, #178. TOEFL Information Bulletin, 

Eg: It appears that these two arguments do not coincide.

Eg: It appears that the system of having students evaluate 
their teachers has been used by many universities as an 
effective means of ensuring that a high standard of 
education is maintained. (TOEFL writing question 102.
TOEFL Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: The most common argument against the use of nuclear 
energy is based on safety. The main point here is that
despite the claims made by the nuclear industry, the 
immediate results of a severe nuclear accident could be 
so devastating, and the long-term results so insidious 
that no degree of risk is acceptable.

Eg: A large construction project always necessitates making a 
considerable amount of noise. Hence, many residents object 
to construction in their neighborhood. (TOEFL writing 
questions 5, #16, #25, #26, #30, #113. TOEFL Information 
Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: From a purely theoretical perspective, computers can 
replace old-fashioned printed books. Indeed, in the past 
decade, hundreds of reference books have appeared in 
electronic form. Clearly, the computer brings a great many
benefits not offered by ordinary reference books; for 
instance, the option of enlarging the type to reduce 
eyestrain or the ability to copy passages onto a notebook 
page and so on. But when it comes to literature, the 
electronic-publishing movement has run into resistance from 
both readers and publishers. Simply put, it is hard to 
imagine sitting down to read Dostoyevsky or Dickens on a 
computer. Though, on a more practical level, the computer 
features may be very useful for those who do literary 
research or some other productive work. Strictly speaking
it is hard to imagine an avid reader reading a computer 
novel just for pleasure. 
The great power of a real book is that it is 
intensely personal and highly interactive for it gives room 
for your imagination. Besides, nothing can compare to the 
glossy sheen, smooth feel, and gluey smell of a new book. 
The physical qualities of a book pull you into its pages. 
Above all, the printed book requires no technology; it is 
accesible to anyone who can read. Hence, it is very 
unlikely that real books will be entirely displaced even in 
the future. 

А теперь мы попрощаемся с вами. 
До нашей следующей встречи!

Лариса Коптелова и Лонни Харрисон,
преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения

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