Мы продолжаем работу по подготовке к сочинению на экзамене TOEFL. В этом уроке мы представляем список слов и выражений, используемых для введения новой информации, перечисления, а также привлечения дополнительных аргументов/фактов. Такие слова по-английски называются transition words или discourse markers (discourse – рассуждение, высказывание по какому-либо вопросу). Они являются «вехами», «указателями» при переходе одной части рассуждения к другой, обеспечивая таким образом логическую последовательность изложения мыслей и четкость структуры сочинения. Чаще всего такие слова и выражения стоят в начале предложения/абзаца сочинения.
В наших последующих уроках мы продолжим знакомство со словами и выражениями, необходимыми для того, чтобы сделать логическое заключение, привести контраргумент, изложить какой-либо пункт рассуждений более подробно и т.д.
WORDS AND PHRASES FOR AN ESSAY
1. Words and phrases to organize points chronologically (to introduce a series of reasons, ideas, remarks, etc):
to start/begin with; for one thing — прежде всего; начать с того, что; для начала;
first and foremost — в первую очередь;
first(ly)/first of all ; second(ly); third(ly);
in the first/second/third place;
for another thing — кроме того; во вторых;
the main thing is that… ; another thing is that…;
the main reason (why…) is that… ; another reason (why…) is that… ;
last but not least – последнее, но не менее важное;
lastly/last of all/finally — наконец; в заключение;
Note: firstly, secondly… is more formal than first, second…
Eg: The aim of the test was first and foremost to give
confidence to the students.
Eg: There are several reasons why students may prefer
to live in dorms: first(ly), it is cheaper to live in
a dorm than to rent an apartment, second(ly), students
do not have to spend much time to get to school
because dorms are usually located on campus, and
lastly/last of all/finally/last but not least, students
may have a more active social life.
Eg: There are two main reasons why these countries should
not involve themselves with nuclear energy at the
present time. In the first place/For one thing, they
have ample supplies of both oil and hydroelectric
energy from which to generate electricity. Secondly/For
another thing, …
2. Words and phrases to indicate the addition of a new point or introduce a related topic:
in addition — в дополнение;
what is more/more than that/furthermore(formal)/moreover (more formal) — более того; кроме того;
by the same token – лишним доказательством этого является то, что; по той же причине;
above all/on top of that — в довершение всего;
as well as — так же (как); не только…, но; в дополнение; помимо;
alongside/in parallel with… — наряду с;
besides/apart from… — кроме, помимо;
besides — к тому же (particularly when adding a negative idea); similarly/equally/likewise — подобным образом;
a word must be said about… – следует сказать/упомянуть о;
it is important to note that… – важно заметить/обратить внимание на то, что
Eg: In addition to (having)a BA degree in Psychology, he
also has an MBA.
(MBA — Master of Business Administration)
Eg: (from a letter of recommendation)… In addition, her
education in Speech Communication and work as a
teacher has provided a great deal of public speaking
and presentation experience. What is more/On top of
that, she is particularly good in a fast-paced
environment with challenges and with co-workers as
enthusiastic as herself.
Eg: The main reason why an international effort is needed to
preserve the world’s energy resources is that individual
nations, like people, will act according to their short-
term motives and self-interest. Another reason is that
this appears to be a problem international in nature which
is difficult to solve independently and thus requires
global cooperation. By the same token, efforts of
individual nations to solve other international problems,
for example, drug trafficking, have proven largely futile,
because efforts have not been internationally based.
Eg: Alongside his many other responsibilities, he now has
to be in charge of staff training.
Eg: Although I feel that life might be less interesting if
we knew everything that would happen in the future, there
are certain details about my own life which I am nearly
dying of curiosity to find out. … Apart from/ Besides
my personal life, I would be very interested to know what
the world will be like in the next century, and in the
Eg: Now it is generally believed that professional sport
affects health in a negative way. Besides, violence,
greed, and corruption are clearly the antitheses of the
athletic ideal. (TOEFL writing question 162)
Eg: It is important to note that professional athletes
often finish their careers not because they are of
retirement age, but because they are physically
damaged. (TOEFL writing question 162)
Eg: Physical labor can exhaust the body very quickly.
Similarly/Equally/Likewise, excessive study can rapidly
reduce mental powers.
Eg: Many parents believe that children should help with
chores around the house at an early age, while others
disagree. Before I tackle this question, a word must be
said about parenting strategies.
(TOEFL writing question 134)
as well as
Eg: He was a real scholar as well as a great composer.
(= He is not only a great composer, but also a real
He is intelligent as well as good-looking.
(= He is not only good-looking, but also intelligent.)
She composes music as well as plays the piano.
(= She not only plays the piano but also composes music.)
Note: In BrE, when they put a verb after as well as, they most often use the -ing form. (См. Swan M. Practical English Usage, Oxford, 1997)
Eg: She sings as well as playing the piano.
As well as doing well on the exams, she wrote a very
good term paper.
TOEFL SAMPLE ESSAY
There are many different kinds of advertising (on the radio, on television, in newspapers, in magazines, and on billboards). In your opinion, which one of these kinds of advertising is the most effective? Why? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
All advertising media share a common goal: to reach as many consumers as possible and convince them to buy a certain product. They all employ similar strategies to achieve this objective, but some are more effective than others. In my opinion, television is the most effective because of several advantages it has over other advertising media.
For one thing, I believe television advertising has a greater power to engage its audience than print and radio media have. While print appeals only to the sense of sight and radio only to hearing, television appeals to both sight and hearing simultaneously. Moreover, a television
advertisement is a moving film and therefore is quite successful at presenting the illusion of reality. The characters in a television commercial seem alive. For these reasons, we are probably more likely to pay close attention to a television commercial than to a radio commercial or an ad in a magazine.
Secondly, the advantage of television advertising over other advertising media is related to the costs involved in producing television commercials. Because of the extremely high cost of advertising on television, the companies which can afford the expense can also afford to do intensive market research. In other words, they can study market trends and buying habits in order to target a very specific consumer audience.
Finally, of all the advertising media, television reaches the widest audience. With a television in nearly every household and the average person watching several hours of television per day, television presents an enormous possibility of exposing a product to a large number of people.
In conclusion, the advantages of television advertising make it by far the most effective advertising medium. Since the marketing industry is very competitive, even the smallest advantage can give a company an edge over its competitors. Thus, companies with a large advertising budget undoubtedly prefer television to other forms of advertising media.
Лариса Коптелова и Лонни Харрисон,
преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения
«Система-3» Автор: Лариса Коптелова, Lonny Harrison, преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения «Система-3»