Words and phrases to generalize/summarize ideas and/or bring them to conclusion:

on the whole/in general/generally/overall — в общем; в целом;
by and large — в общем и целом; 
broadly speaking — вообще говоря; в общих чертах; 
to a great/some extent — в значительной/некоторой степени; 
in most/some cases — в большинстве/некоторых случаях;
in any case — в любом случае;
by all accounts — по общему мнению;
by all indications — судя по всему;
essentially — по существу; в основном;
in a word — одним словом; короче говоря; 
in this respect/sense — в этом отношении/смысле;
as mentioned/noted (previously/above) — как уже было упомянуто/сказано/отмечено/указано (выше);
for the reasons discussed (above) — ввиду (выше)указанных/ (выше)названных причин;
in sum/in the final analysis/in conclusion/in the end/ ultimately — в заключение; в итоге; в конечном счёте; в конце концов;

Запомните следующие выражения:

it is common knowledge that…/it is generally believed that… — общеизвестно, что…; является общепризнанным тот факт, что…;
to dispute the commonly expressed opinion — оспаривать общеизвестное мнение; 
to bring to (a) conclusion — завершить; привести к заключению; 
to come to the conclusion — прийти к выводу (о том, что…);
to draw a conclusion — делать вывод; 
to jump to a conclusion — делать поспешный вывод;
to be careful with one’s conclusions — быть осторожным с выводами; 
to make a deduction (about)/to deduce (from)/to infer (from, about) — делать вывод/заключение (из чего-либо; о чём-либо/о ком-либо);

Eg: What can be inferred from the situation?
What can be inferred about the speakers?
(Вопросы, задаваемые после прослушивания диалогов — TOEFL, 
Listening Comprehension, Part A)
A large number of facts can be inferred from archaeological

Eg: It is common knowledge that smoking affects health in a 
negative way.

Eg: I have come to the conclusion that we have made a mistake.

Eg: People should be careful not to jump to conclusions.

Eg: Broadly speaking, teachers in our country are overworked 
and underpaid.

Eg: Essentially, this plan is worthwhile, but it will not 
satisfy both groups.

Eg: While living in an apartment in the community presents a 
number of benefits, for the reasons discussed (above), it 
is often not the best choice for many students, 
particularly for those students who have inadequate 
income. (TOEFL writing question 105. TOEFL Information 
Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: In sum, I have discussed arguments on both sides of the 
question whether the Earth is being harmed or improved by 
human activity. In any case, we live on the Earth and we 
must make the best of what we have and try to live in 
harmony with our environment. (TOEFL writing question 29.
TOEFL Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: In conclusion, I have provided much evidence to show that 
regular exercise improves study habits. By all accounts/By 
all indications, a student who performs regular physical 
exercise will achieve better results in his schoolwork than 
a student who does not. (TOEFL wfiting question 128. TOEFL 
Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Eg: Ultimately, the degree to which a person’s salary is a 
measurement of his succes depends on the individual. 
Undoubtedly, some people need to earn a very large sum of 
money in order to feel satisfied with themselves, while 
others require less. In the end, each person lives 
according to his means and his needs. (TOEFL writing 
question 131. TOEFL Information Bulletin, 2001/2002)

Предлагаем вашему вниманию ещё один образец сочинения TOEFL. Обратите внимание на выделенные слова и выражения.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A sense of humor can sometimes be helpful in difficult situations. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

They say laughter is the best medicine. One might add that it is a great problem solver on many other levels. That is, a good sense of humor can sometimes help a person out of difficult situations.

For one thing, humor often helps to break the ice when two people meet for the first time. Especially when the circumstances under which the two people meet are somehow awkward, a subtle joke or ironic comment can make it easier for them to feel comfortable talking with one another.Indeed, humor may help two people get to know each other quickly and establish a friendship.

In some cases, laughter may even resolve conflict. For instance, when two or more people strongly disagree on some point and find themselves in a heated discussion, an unexpected humorous remark may relieve some of the tension. If the quarrelers see some humor in their dispute, they might forget their disagreements and avoid potentially serious conflict.

A sense of humor can also be a very helpful means of relieving stress. The ability to take on a light-hearted attitude and laugh at one’s own problems can considerably decrease the amount of stress in one’s life. In this sense, humor can save a person from the depression and anxiety that stress often causes.

In sum, a sense of humor has a strong potential to make difficult or unpleasant situations better. One might even say that those who have a keen sense of humor often experience fewer difficulties and less stress than people without such a well-developed sense of the lighter side of life.

Мы продолжим работу над сочинением TOEFL на нашем следующем занятии. 

Лариса Коптелова и Лонни Харрисон,
преподаватели Лингвистической школы общения

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